It is the branch of Odontostomatology that studies the functioning of Mandibular Temporal Joints (A.T.M.), the relationship between the dental elements of the two arches in the closing position (occlusion) and related functions (mainly swallowing and chewing). It is a very important science since the frenetic rhythms of modern life and alterations in occlusion can cause pathological situations (Bruxism and Pathological tighten) that are particularly disabling and difficult to treat.
In predisposed subjects, the occlusion defect or stress state or both situations at the same time create a dysfunctional situation of the muscles and of the anatomical articular structures that regulate the movements of the mandible jaw that is defined as Dysfunctional Mandibular Cervical Skull Disease. In the most serious cases, this disease can lead to particularly high pain that is not sensitive to pharmacological therapies, which are often confused as symptoms of headache due to localisation.
It is estimated that this type of pathology is very widespread especially in urban centres and it causes very high labour costs, given the frequent disability that cause in the subjects affected. The therapy is very complex and must be aimed at eliminating or improving occlusal problems and reducing the spasm of the muscles involved. In order to obtain an important aid in both the diagnostic and therapeutic phases, it is necessary to use Electromyography (E. M. G.), which is an investigation that allows to quantify the degree of spasm and the working capacity of the chewing muscles. Using electromyographic techniques, which can be repeated because they do not foresee harmful side effects, it will be possible to check the effectiveness of therapies that are usually implemented initially by applying resin plaques of various types (Bite) to improve muscle function and eliminate the most coarse problems of occlusion where present. Once clear indications of gnathology have been obtained from these initial therapies, definitive occlusal changes can be obtained, if necessary, by orthodontic or prosthetic treatments.
Almost always these treatments improve the major problem of the Gnathological Patient which is persistent pain.